It was only in World War I (1914-1918) that the combination of high quality service rifles and new telescopic sights brought the true ‘sniper’ to the battlefield as a distinct specialist. By 1918 the scout-sniper’s value as an observer and gatherer of intelligence was as important as his lethal skills, but these were disregarded in the interwar years. From 1939-45 most armies had to train and equip snipers from scratch, but they were to play a major role in all theatres of war. Famously, on the Russian Front it was a role in which women excelled. This title recounts the development of weapons, sights, tactics and clothing in all the major armies, from Flanders to the Gulf.