On December 20, 2005, Federal District Court Judge John E. Jones III ruled that Intelligent Design was not science but an unconstitutional intrusion of religion into the school curriculum. His decision upheld contentions by parents in the Dover, PA, school district that school board members substituted personal religious beliefs for science. The ruling came despite calls by President George W. Bush for Intelligent Design to be taught as a theory alongside the theory of evolution. This hotly contested issue continues to grip the nation and spark intense debate. But what is Intelligent Design? Can Intelligent Design stand up to the rigors of scientific method? Or is it a nonscientific, faith-inspired interpretation of experience? This collection of essays addresses such questions and includes analyses from scientists, journalists, philosophers, and religious leaders and thinkers. This volume provides a variety of perspectives in the hope that readers will be better prepared to reach their own conclusions about the issues involved. Divided into five sections, the first section provides analyses of Judge Jones’s decision. Section two includes a report on and a response to President Bush’s call for Intelligent Design to be taught in schools. The third section outlines the origins of the debate, including excerpts from the classic works of Charles Darwin and theologian William Paley. Section four analyzes the scientific validity of Intelligent Design and includes statements from key scientific associations. The highly important concluding section asks whether religion and evolution are compatible. This essential volume features selections from: Elisabeth Bumiller, Matt Cartmill, Charles Darwin, Daniel C. Dennett, Barbara Forrest, Owen Gingerich, Stephen Jay Gould, John Paul II, Philip Kitcher, Ernan McMullen, Kenneth R. Miller, Nancey Murphy, William Paley, Robert T. Pennock, Holmes Rolston III, Michael Ruse, Alfred Tauber, Michael W. Tkacz, James Q. Wilson, and Carl Zimmer.