The book compiles case studies regarding the biodiversity research and monitoring program of Andean species and habitats carefully chosen as indicators to assess the short- and long-term effects of a linear disturbance: the PERU LNG pipeline. Set in a scientifically unexplored region of the Andes, Monitoring Biodiversity clearly articulates the Smithsonian-led conceptual framework for the implementation in the field by scientists. It addresses scientific and conservation questions addressed by the research protocols, the experimental design, and data gathering. Moreover, the book covers a gap on how to integrate biodiversity research, monitoring, and conservation into sustainable development projects of national and international interest. The text is presented in both English and Spanish.