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The Penguin History of the Twentieth Century by J. M. Roberts
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The Penguin History of the Twentieth Century

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The Penguin History of the Twentieth Century by J. M. Roberts
Paperback $25.00
Jul 06, 2004 | ISBN 9780140276312

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  • Jul 06, 2004 | ISBN 9780140276312

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A book that deserves the widest reading. (The New York Times Book Review)

Table Of Contents

The Penguin History of the Twentieth CenturyList of Maps

Book 1: The World of 1901: Inheritances

1. By Way of Introduction

Our Century — The weight of the past — The different pasts of 1901 — The ‘civilized’ world — Culture and hegemony — ‘One-half of the human species’ — Ideas with a future — The scientific legacy — Movers and shakers

2. Structures
Human numbers — The world’s wealth —Commerce — States and governments — Monarchy — Non-western government — Islamic empires — The Unites States of America — Latin America — The international order: power and great powers — Potential for change

3. The White Man’s World
Empires and imperialism — The European empires — Idealism, interests and imagination — Settlers and natives — Imperialism and international relations: the ‘Scramble for Africa’ — Asian and Pacific empire — The imperial Unites States — The South African war

4. Shapes of Things to Come
Long-term demography — The divisions of humanity — A century of growing wealth — An industrializing world — New technology — Medical science — Communication — Mass communication — Changing mentalities — Acceleration and integration

Book 2: The Last Years of the European Ascendancy

5. European Exceptionalism

Europeans — Privilege and unrest — Socialism — Mass politics and nationalism — Constitutional governments — The German empire — Dynasticism — Religion in European life — Tensions and strains — Women in Europe

6. Europe as a System of Power
International order — Alliances and entanglements — The dissatisfied and dangerous — The appearance of security — New alignments — Deepening divisions — Young Turks — Russia’s changing stance — Agadir and after — The Balkan wars

7. Challenges and Challengers in the Making
Change and perceptions of change in Asia — The new Japan — The end of the Chinese empire — The European empires in the Far East — Indo-China and Indonesia — India under the Raj — India enters the twentieth century — Egypt and the other end of Ottoman Africa — Ottoman empire east of Suez — New actors in the imperial drama

8. The Great War and the Beginning of the Twentieth-century Revolution
The last crisis — The end of an age — The Great War — The changing world — 1917 — Revolutionary war — Triumphs of nationality — The Ottoman collapse — The end of the first German war

Book 3: The End Of The Old World Order

9. A Revolutionary Peace

The basis of settlement — The League — The international economy — Economic disorder in Europe — Democracy and nationality — Revolution and counter-revolution — The new Germany — International communism — The new Russian empire — A new autocracy — A world divided

10. Years of Illusion
A last flourish of empire — Kemal Atatürk — Iran — New currents in Europe’s politics — An authoritarian wave — New uncertainties — The optimistic years — Locarno and after — An eastern enigma — The United States

Book 4: World Revolution

11. An Emerging Global History

The world depression — Asia in the era of European civil war — The sequel to the Chinese revolution — Japan — The peace settlements and Asia — Chinese communism — Japanese dynamism — Civil war in China — The turning tide in India — The United States — Latin America

12. The Path to World War
The approach to the abyss — The Manchurian crisis — The China ‘incident’ — Indo-China and Indonesia between the wars — The German problem — Adolf Hitler — The German revolution — The crumbling balance of power — Ideology’s contamination of international affairs — Towards a new German war: the Spanish Civil War — Hitler moves beyond the German lands

13. The Second World War
From Blitzkrieg to Barbarossa — German Europe — World war — The conflation of wars — Global conflict 1941-5 — The meaning of victory

Book Five: A New World

14. Appearance and Reality

Europe: amid the ruins — The framework of recovery — Reconstruction — Great power realities — Friction — The Truman doctrine and the Marshall Plan

15. The Cold War Unrolls
Roots of conflict — The Berlin crisis and NATO — New nations: the beginnings of decolonization — Indian independence — The last throes of the Chinese revolution — Imperial realities in 1945 — Indo-China — The running sore of the Ottoman Succession — Cold and hot war in Asia: Korea — Stalin’s legacy — A divided Europe in a dividing world

16. East Asia Reshaped
After empire — The Indian sub-continent — The ‘Third World’ — Indonesia — The new China — China’s re-emergence as a world power — The great steersman — Resurgent Japan

17. Africa and the Near East: Old and New Problems
Past history, new facts — Pre-independence Africa — The independence process in Black Africa — South Africa and Rhodesia — Disapppointment and disillusion — Arab and Jew — The Egyptian revolution and after — Algerian independence

Book 6: Shifting Foundations

18. Changing Minds

New ways of seeing the world — The management of the natural world — Power — Communications and information technology — The life sciences — Medical science — Space and the public imagination — Promise and misgiving — Facing new issues

19. New Economic and Social Worlds
In the long run — Europe’s ‘golden age’ — Eastern Europe — World contrasts — Changing lifestyles — The oil crisis and after — Structural changes — Cultural consequences in a wealthier world — Globalization

20. Authority and Its New Challengers
A liberating century — Dissolving certainty — Religion in the later twentieth century — Government, democracy and nationalism — Challenges to the state — Women — The Pill — New waves — Women in the non-western world — Youth

Book 7. A Changing World Balance

21. The Cold War at Its Height

After Stalin — The second Berlin crisis — Latin America enters world politics — Cuba — The aftermath in Latin America — The changing USSR — The changing United States

22. Vietnam and After
The American entanglement — The changing Asian context — Oil and the Israel problem — The Iranian revolution — Islam in international affairs — An uneasy Latin America

23. The Reshaping of Europe
Seeds of unity — The division of Europe — National interests — Ostpolitik — The path to Helsinki — The British crisis

Book 8: The End Of An Era

24. A World in Evolution

The last years of Chairman Mao — New patterns — Japan: the new world power — The Indian democracy — Africa’s enduring problems

25. Crumbling Certainties
Seeds of doubt — American misgivings — Disordered Islam — The last phase of Cold War — Changing eastern Europe — Polish revolution — The crumbling of the Soviet system — A new Germany

26. Post Cold War Realities
The Gulf War — Persisting dangers — The end of the Soviet Union — A new Russia — New European security problems — The end of Yugoslavia — Nationality and ethnicity in the new Europe — European integration — Qualified re-orientation: the United Kingdom — Changes in China — Tiananmen

27. Fin-de-siècle
Problems of peacekeeping — Europe after Maastricht — A common currency — Enlarging Europe — A troubled Far East — The Indian sub-continent — The United States at the end of the century — Pax Americana

28. Retrospect
Historical importance — The great upheavals — The mythology of human happiness — Mastery of the material world — The first world civilization — Today’s political world — Conclusion

Appendix: The Exploration of Space

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